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Prevalence of ID in HF


Anemia and ID are both fairly common in heart failure (HF)

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chronic ID

ID occurs in approximately 50% of chronic stable heart failure patients, and up to 70% of patients hospitalized due to acute HF. The prevalence of ID is similar in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).


of chronic stable
heart failure patients


of patients
hospitalized due
to acute HF

ID often associated

In heart failure patients, ID is often associated with reduced functional capacity, quality of life, and life expectancy and is often independent of the presence of anemia.

absolute - functional ID

Approximately half of all patients with heart failure have either absolute iron deficiency or functional iron deficiency, and ID is only partly associated with the presence of anemia.

ID in Women

Iron Deficiency is common especially among women, in patients with advanced HF, or those with higher levels of inflammation.

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ID prevalence

The ID prevalence often increases with the New York Heart Association (NYHA) HF functional class:


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Anand IS, Pankaj G. Anemia and iron deficiency in heart failure: current concepts and emerging therapies. Circulation 2018;138:89-98

Ebner, Nicole, and Stephan von Haehling. “Why is Iron Deficiency Recognised as an Important Comorbidity in Heart Failure?.” Cardiac failure review 5.3 (2019): 173.

Jankowska, Ewa A., et al. “Iron deficiency: an ominous sign in patients with systolic chronic heart failure.” European heart journal 31.15 (2010): 1872-1880.

Klip, IJsbrand T., et al. “Iron deficiency in chronic heart failure: an international pooled analysis.” American heart journal 165.4 (2013): 575-582.

Fedele, Francesco, et al. “Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency.” Iron Deficiency Anemia. IntechOpen, 2018.